before 2001

[50] Bolin B, Sukumar R, Ciais P, Cramer W, Jarvis P, Kheshgi H, Nobre CA, Semenov S, Steffen W 2000 Global Perspective. Pp 23-52 in Watson RT, Noble IR, Bolin B, Ravindranath NH, Verardo DJ, Dokken DJ (eds) Land Use, Land-Use Change, and Forestry - A Special Report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

[49] Bugmann H, Lindner M, Lasch P, Flechsig M, Ebert B, Cramer W 2000 Scaling issues in forest succession modelling. Clim Change 44(3):265-289, doi : 10.1023/A:1005603011956

[48] Fleming MD, Chapin III FS, Cramer W Hufford GL, Serreze MC 2000 Geographic patterns and dynamics of Alaskan climate interpolated from a sparse station record. Gl Ch Biol 6 (Suppl 1):49-58, doi : 10.1046/j.1365-2486.2000.06008.x

[47] Foley JA, Levis S, Heil Costa M, Cramer W, Pollard D 2000 Incorporating dynamic vegetation cover within global climate models. Ecol Appl 10:1620-1632

[46] Ni J, Sykes MT, Prentice IC, Cramer W 2000 Modelling the vegetation of China using the process-based equilibrium terrestrial biosphere model BIOME3. Gl Ecol Biogeogr 9(6):463-480, doi : 10.1046/j.1365-2699.2000.00206.x (56/4.67) (note the minor corrigendum : Ni J, Sykes MT, Prentice IC, Cramer W 2004 Modelling the vegetation of China using the process-based equilibrium terrestrial biosphere model BIOME3 (vol 9, pg 463, 2000). Gl Ecol Biogeogr 13:189, doi : 10.1111/j.1466-882X.2004.00080.x)

[45] Cramer W, Kicklighter DW, Bondeau A, Moore B III, Churkina G, Nemry B, Ruimy A, Schloss AL & Participants of « Potsdam’95 » 1999 Comparing global models of terrestrial net primary productivity (NPP) : Overview and key results. Gl Ch Biol 5 (Suppl.1):1-15, doi : 10.1046/j.1365-2486.1999.00009.x

[44] Cramer W, Leemans R, Schulze E-D, Bondeau A, Scholes R 1999 Data needs and limitations for broad-scale ecosystem modelling. In : Walker BH, Steffen WL, Canadell J, Ingram JSI (Eds) The Terrestrial Biosphere and Global Change : Implications for Natural and Managed Ecosystems. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. IGBP Book Series 4:88-105

[43] Cramer W, Shugart HH, Noble IR, Woodward FI, Bugmann H, Bondeau A, Foley JA, Gardner RH, Lauenroth B, Pitelka LF, Sala O, Sutherst RW 1999 Ecosystem composition and structure. In : Walker BH, Steffen WL, Canadell J, Ingram JSI (Eds.) The Terrestrial Biosphere and Global Change : Implications for Natural and Managed Ecosystems. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. 4:190-228

[42] Cramer W, Whittaker RJ 1999 Changing the surface of our planet - results from studies of the global ecosystem. Gl Ecol Biogeogr 8(5):363-365

[41] Farrera I, Harrison SP, Prentice IC, Ramstein G, Guiot J, Bartlein PJ, Bonnefille R, Bush M, Cramer W, von Grafenstein U, Holmgren K, Hooghiemstra H, Hope G, Jolly D, Lauritzen SE, Ono Y, Pinot S, Stute M, Yu G 1999 Tropical palaeoclimates at the Last Glacial Maximum : A new synthesis of terrestrial data. Clim Dyn 15(11):823-856

[40] Fosberg MA, Cramer W, Brovkin V, Fleming R, Gardner RH, Gill AM, Goldammer JG, Keane R, Koehler P, Lenihan J, Neilson RP, Sitch S, Thonicke K, Venevsky S, Weber MG, Wittenberg U 1999 Strategy for a fire module in dynamic global vegetation models. Int J Wildland Fire 9:79-84

[39] Goudriaan J, Shugart HH, Bugmann H, Cramer W, Bondeau A, Gardner B, Hunt T, Lauenroth B, Landsberg J, Linder S, Noble I, Parton W, Pitelka L, Smith MS, Sutherst B, Valentin C, Woodward FI 1999 Use of models in global change studies. In : Walker BH, Steffen WL, Canadell J, Ingram JSI (Eds.) The Terrestrial Biosphere and Global Change : Implications for Natural and Managed Ecosystems. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. 4:106-140

[38] Scurlock JMO, Cramer W, Olson RJ, Parton WJ, Prince SD 1999 Terrestrial NPP : toward a consistent data set for global model evaluation. Ecol App 9(3):913-919

[37] Wessman CA, Cramer W, Gurney RJ, Martin P, Mauser W, Nemani R, Paruelo JM, Peñuelas J, Prince SD, Running SW, Waring RH 1999 Group report : Remote sensing perspectives and insights for study of complex landscapes. In : Tenhunen JD, Kabat P (eds.) Integrating Hydrology, Ecosystem Dynamics and Biogeochemistry in Complex Landscapes. Chichester : John Wiley & Sons. Pp. 89-103

[36] Bugmann H, Cramer W 1998 Improving the behaviour of forest gap models along drought gradients. For Ecol Managem 103:247-263

[35] IGBP Terrestrial Carbon Working Group (Steffen W, Noble I, Canadell J, Apps M, Schulze E-D, Jarvis PG, Baldocchi D, Ciais P, Cramer W, Ehleringer J, Farquhar G, Field CB, Ghazi A, Gifford R, Heimann M, Houghton R, Kabat P, Körner C, Lambin E, Linder S, Mooney HA, Murdiyarso D, Post WM, Prentice IC, Raupach MR, Schimel DS, Shvidenko A, Valentini R) 1998 The terrestrial carbon cycle : implications for the Kyoto Protocol. Science 280:1393-1394

[34] Cramer W 1997 Using plant functional types in a global vegetation model. In : Smith TM, Shugart HH, Woodward FI (Eds.) Plant Functional Types : Their Relevance to Ecosystem Properties and Global Change. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. IGBP Book Series 1:271-288

[33] Cramer W, Kohlmaier GH 1997 Modelle zur Simulation von Struktur und Dynamik der terrestrischen Biosphäre. In : Müller F (ed.) Handbuch der Umweltwissenschaften V-3.10.1. 15pp

[32] Cramer W, Steffen W 1997 Forecast changes in the global environment : What they mean in terms of ecosystem responses on different time-scales. In : Huntley B, Cramer W, Morgan AV, Prentice HC, Allen JRM (Eds.) Past and future rapid environmental changes : The spatial and evolutionary responses of terrestrial biota. Berlin : Springer-Verlag. NATO ASI Series Vol.I 47:415-426

[31] Huntley B, Cramer W 1997 Arctic ecosystems and environmental change : Perceptions from the past and predictions for the future. In : Crawford RMM (ed.) Disturbance and Recovery in Arctic Lands : An Ecological Perspective. Dordrecht, The Netherlands : Kluwer Academic Publishers. Pp 1-24

[30] Huntley B, Cramer W, Morgan AV, Prentice HC, Allen JRM 1997 Past and future rapid environmental changes : The spatial and evolutionary responses of terrestrial biota - Introduction. In : Huntley B, Cramer W, Morgan AV, Prentice HC, Allen JRM (eds.) Past and future rapid environmental changes : The spatial and evolutionary responses of terrestrial biota. Berlin : Springer-Verlag. NATO ASI Series Vol.I 47

[29] Huntley B, Cramer W, Morgan AV, Prentice HC, Allen JRM 1997 The likely response of terrestrial biota to future environmental changes (conclusions). In : Huntley B, Cramer W, Morgan AV, Prentice HC, Allen JRM (eds.) Past and future rapid environmental changes : The spatial and evolutionary responses of terrestrial biota. Berlin : Springer-Verlag. NATO ASI Series Vol.I 47

[28] Lindner M, Bugmann H, Lasch P, Flechsig M, Cramer W 1997 Regional impacts of climatic change on forests in the state of Brandenburg, Germany. Agric For Met 84(1-2):123-135

[27] Cramer W 1996 Modeling the possible impact of climate change on broad-scale vegetation structure : examples from northern Europe. In : Oechel WC, Callaghan T, Gilmanov T, Holten JI, Maxwell B, Molau U, Sveinbjörnsson B (eds) Global Change and Arctic Terrestrial Ecosystems. New York : Springer. Ecological Studies 124:312-329

[26] Cramer W, Fischer A 1996 Data requirements for global terrestrial ecosystem modelling. In : Walker B, Steffen W (eds.) Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. IGBP Book Series 2:530-565

[25] Kirschbaum MUF, Fischlin A, Cannell MGR, Cruz RVO, Cramer WP 1996 Climate Change Impacts on Forests. In : Watson RT, Zinyowera MC, Moss RH (eds.) Climate Change 1995 - Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change : Scientific-Technical Analyses. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press. Pp 95-129

[24] Kirschbaum MUF, Bullock P, Evans JR, Goulding K, Jarvis PG, Noble IR, Rounsevell M, Sharkey TD, Austin MP, Brookes P, Brown S, Bugmann HKM, Cramer WP, Diaz S, Gitay H, Hamburg SP, Harris J, Holten JI, Kriedemann PE, Le Houerou HN, Linder S, Luxmoore RJ, McMurtrie RE, Pitelka LF, Powlson D, Raison RJ, Rastetter EB, Roetter R, Rogasik J, Sauerbeck DR, Sombroek W, Van de Geijn SC 1996 Ecophysiological, Ecological, and Soil Processes in Terrestrial Ecosystems : A Primer on General Concepts and Relationships. In : Watson RT, Zinyowera MC & Moss RH (Eds) Climate Change 1995 - Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change : Scientific-Technical Analyses. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press. Pp 57-74

[23] Leemans R, Cramer W, Van Minnen JG 1996 Prediction of global biome distribution using bioclimatic equilibrium models. In : Breymeyer A, Hall DO, Melillo JM, Agren GI (eds.) Global Change : Effects on Coniferous Forests and Grasslands. Chichester : SCOPE, John Wiley and Sons. Pp 414-450

[22] Lindner M, Lasch P, Cramer W 1996 Application of a forest succession model to a continentality gradient through Central Europe. Clim Change 34:191-199

[21] Steffen WL, Cramer W, Plöchl M, Bugmann H 1996 Global vegetation models : incorporating transient changes to structure and composition. J Veg Sci 7(3):321-328

[20] Sykes MT, Prentice IC, Cramer W 1996 A bioclimatic model for the potential distributions of North European tree species under present and future climates. J Biogeogr 23(2):203-233

[19] Watson RT, Zinyowera MC, Moss RH, Acosta Moreno R, Adhikary S, Adler M, Agrawala S, Aguilar AG, Al-Khouli S, Allen-Diaz B, Ando M, Andressen R, Ang BW, Arnell N, Arquit-Niederberger A, Baethgen W, Bates B, Beniston M, Bierbaum R, Bijlsma L, Boko M, Bolin B, Bolton S, Bravo E, Brown S, Bullock P, Cannell M, Canziani O, Carcavallo R, Cerri CC, Chandler W, Cheghe F, Liu C, Cole V, Cramer W, Cruz RV, Davidson O, Desa E, Xu D, Diaz S, Dlugolecki A, Edmonds J, Everett J, Fischlin A, Fitzharris B, Fox D, Friaa J, Gacuhi AR, Galinski W, Gitay H, Groffman P, Grubler A, Gruenspecht H, Hamburg S, Hoffman T, Holten JI, Ishitani H, Ittekkot V, Johansson T, Kaczmarek Z, Kashiwagi T, Kirschbaum M, Komor P, Krovnin A, Klein R, Kulshrestha S, Lang H, Le Houerou H, Leemans R, Levine M, Erda L, Lluch-Belda D, MacCracken M, Magnuson J, Mailu G, Maitima JM, Marland G, Maskell K, McLean R, McMichael A, Michaelis L, Miles E, Moomaw W, Moreira R, Mulholland P, Nakicenovic N, Nicholls R, Nishioka S, Noble I, Nurse L, Odongo R, Ohashi R, Okemwa E, Oquist M, Parry M, Perdomo M, Petit M, Piver W, Ramakrishnan PS, Ravindranath NH, Reilly J, Riedacker A, Rogner H-H, Sathaye J, Sauerbeck D, Scott M, Sharma S, Shriner D, Sinha SK, Skea J, Solomon A, Stakhiv E, Starosolszky O, Jilan S, Suarez A, Svensson B, Takakura H, Taylor M, Tessier L, Tirpak D, Tran Viet Lien, Troadec J-P, Tsukamoto H, Tsuzaka I, Vellinga P, Williams T, Young P, Xie Y, Fengqi Z 1996 Technical Summary : Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation Options. In : Watson RT, Zinyowera MC, Moss RH (eds.) Climate Change 1995 - Impacts, Adaptations and Mitigation of Climate Change : Scientific-Technical Analyses. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press. Pp 19-53

[18] Huntley B, Berry PM, Cramer W, & McDonald AP 1995 Modelling present and potential future ranges of some European higher plants using climate response surfaces. J Biogeogr 22(6):967-1001

[17] Plöchl M, Cramer W 1995 Possible impacts of global warming on tundra and boreal forest ecosystems - comparison of some biogeochemical models. J Biogeogr 22(4-5):775-784

[16] Plöchl M, Cramer W 1995 Coupling global models of vegetation structure and ecosystem processes - an example from arctic and boreal ecosystems. Tellus B - Chem Phys Meteorol 47(1-2):240-250

[15] Cramer W, Leemans R 1993 Assessing impacts of climate change on vegetation using climate classification systems. In : Solomon AM & Shugart HH (Eds.) Vegetation Dynamics and Global Change. New York : Chapman and Hall. Pp 190-217

[14] Cramer W, Solomon AM 1993 Climatic classification and future redistribution of global agricultural land. Clim Res 3:97-110

[13] Cramer W 1993 Dry coastal ecosystems in the northern Baltic Sea. In : Van der Maarel E (ed.) Dry Coastal Ecosystems. Polar Regions and Europe. Ecosystems of the World. Elsevier. pp.95-107. Amsterdam, The Netherlands

[12] Prentice IC, Sykes MT, Cramer W 1993 A simulation model for the transient effects of climate change on forest landscapes. Ecol Modelling 65(1-2):51-70

[11] Smith TM, Cramer W, Dixon RK, Leemans R, Neilson RP, Solomon AM 1993 The global terrestrial carbon cycle. Wat Air and Soil Poll 70(1-4):19-37

[10] Solomon AM, Cramer W 1993 Biospheric implications of global environmental change. In : Solomon AM, Shugart HH (Eds.) Vegetation Dynamics and Global Change. New York : Chapman and Hall. Pp 25-52

[9] Solomon AM, Prentice IC, Leemans R, Cramer W 1993 The interaction of climate and land use in future terrestrial carbon storage and release. Wat Air and Soil Poll 70(1-4):595-614

[8] Prentice IC, Cramer W, Harrison SP, Leemans R, Monserud RA, Solomon AM 1992 A global biome model based on plant physiology and dominance, soil properties and climate. J Biogeogr 19(2):117-134

[7] Prentice IC, Sykes MT, Cramer W 1991 The possible dynamic response of northern forests to greenhouse warming. Gl Ecol Biogeogr Lett 1:129-135

[6] Cramer W, Christophersen A, Jones MH 1990 Naturtopografi og strandforskyvning i Trondheim i sen forhistorisk tid. Bebyggelsehist Tidskr 19:79-108

[5] Prentice HC, Cramer W 1990 The plant community as a niche bioassay : environmental correlates of local variation in Gypsophila fastigiata. J Ecol 78:313-325

[4] Skarpe C, Hytteborn H, Cramer W 1989 Femtio års skogsutveckling på Granskär, norra Uppland. Sv Bot Tidsk 83:177-185

[3] Cramer W, Prentice IC 1988 Simulation of soil moisture deficits on a European scale. Norsk Geogr Tidskr 42:149-151

[2] Cramer W, Hytteborn H 1987 The separation of fluctuation and long-term change in vegetation dynamics of a rising seashore. Vegetatio 69:157-167

[1] Cramer W 1985 The effect of sea shore displacement on population age structure of coastal Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. Holarct Ecol 8:265-272