OT-MED : conférenciers invités en septembre 2013

Liste des conférenciers invités par OT-MED en septembre 2013


Prof. Jed Kaplan - 13 septembre 2013

Prof. Jed Kaplan de l’Université de Genève, Swisse (ARVE Group, Institute for Environmental Sciences) sera l’invité du Laboratoire d’Excellence OT-Med (Objectif Terre : Bassin Méditerranéen).

A cette occasion, nous avons le plaisir de vous convier à la conférence du professeur Jed Kaplan sur le thème « From forest to farmland and meadow to metropolis : What role for humans in explaining the enigma of Holocene CO2 and methane concentrations ? »

Date
Le vendredi 13 septembre 2013 à 11 h 00

Lieu
Salle 205 du CEREGE
Europôle Méditerranéen de l’Arbois,
rue Louis Philibert,
Aix-en-Provence, France

Abstract
Did humans affect global climate over the before the Industrial Era ?
While this question is hotly debated, the co-evolution of humans and the natural environment over the last 11,700 years had an undisputed role in influencing the development and present state of terrestrial ecosystems, many of which are highly valued today as economic, cultural, and ecological resources. Yet we still have a very incomplete picture of human-environment interactions over the Holocene, both spatially and temporally. In order to address this problem, we combined a global dynamic vegetation model with a new model of preindustrial anthropogenic land cover change. We drive these integrated models with paleoclimate from GCM scenarios, a new synthesis of global demographic, technological, and economic development over preindustrial time, and a global database of historical urbanization covering the last 8000 years.
We simulate land cover and land use change, fire, soil erosion, and
emissions of CO2 and methane (CH4) from 11,700 years before present to AD 1850. We evaluate our simulations in part with a new set of continental-scale reconstructions of land cover based on records from the Global Pollen Database.


Dr. Berta Martín-López - jeudi 19 septembre 2013

Dr. Berta Martín-López de Autonomous University of Madrid, Espagne (Social-Ecological Systems Laboratory, Department of Ecology) sera l’invitée du Laboratoire d’Excellence OT-Med (Objectif Terre : Bassin Méditerranéen).

A cette occasion, nous avons le plaisir de vous convier à la conférence sur le thème « Integrated assessment of ecosystem services : dealing with complexity of social-ecological systems ».

Date
Le jeudi 19 septembre 2013 à 11 h

Lieu
Salle 205 du CEREGE

Abstract
Recognizing that biodiversity conservation is about species and ecosystems as much as humans and society suggests an interesting change in the way we have traditionally approached to biodiversity conservation. If we want to move beyond documenting biodiversity erosion, then we should be aware that human societies are part of nature and recognize that societies are highly interconnected with the biophysical life-support system, thus conforming social-ecological systems. As biodiversity conservation is part of ecological and social processes, conservation actions are embedded in social-ecological systems. The study of social-ecological systems focuses on understanding the relationships existing between nature and society, analyzing either the contributions made by biodiversity to human wellbeing (i.e. ecosystem services) or the human actions that, through institutions, affect the ecosystems integrity (i.e. governance system). 
On the one hand, acknowledging that ecosystem services is a complex concept (as it bridges two complex systems -ecosystems and social systems-), invite us to rethink how to design a comprehensive approach for their assessment. In this context, the ecosystem service research needs as much variety of methods as complexity and value plurality exists in the system we want to analyze (i.e. social-ecological system). Consequently, scientists should be cautioned to approach the ecosystem services research from a real interdisciplinary point of view (which includes different disciplines, from biophysical, to sociological, to economic science), incorporate multiple values (from biophysical to monetary values) and consider multiple forms of knowledge (which includes not only scientific or technical but also experiential or local ecological knowledge). 
On the other hand, as the governance system involves the diversity of ways in which humans and nature interact ; the governance of social-ecological system (or the ecosystem service governance) requires as more variety of processes as more complexity exists in the system to be managed. In fact, the process of governing social-ecological systems should entail institutional diversity (i.e. informal institutions, formal rules and economic institutions) at different organization scales (i.e. polycentrism). Therefore, we could never protect biodiversity if we will not previously restore the informal institutions that safeguard those humans’ belief- and knowledge-systems that real connect with biosphere at local scale. 
As Vandana Shiva (1989) claimed, if we have the necessity to preserve nature in order to live, then we should be able to restore our own human capacity of conservation.


Dr. Prof. Andrey Ostrovsky - jeudi 12 septembre et jeudi 26 septembre 2013

Dr. Prof. Andrey Ostrovsky de l’Université de Vienne, Autriche et de l’Université de St. Petersburg, Russie est l’invité du Laboratoire d’Excellence OT-Med (Objectif Terre : Bassin Méditerranéen).

A cette occasion, nous avons le plaisir de vous convier à deux conférences sur les thèmes :

  • 
 « Diversity of the life cycles and reproductive patterns in marine Bryozoa »

Date
jeudi 12 septembre 2013 à 14h

Lieu
Station Marine d’Endoume,
Rue Batterie des Lions
13007 Marseille, France.

  • 
 « Upper Cretaceous radiation of cheilostome bryozoans and its ecological background »

Date
jeudi 26septembre 2013 à 11h

Lieu
Salle 205 du CEREGE
Europôle Méditerranéen de l’Arbois,
rue Louis Philibert,
Aix-en-Provence, France

Abstracts
Diversity of the life cycles and reproductive patterns in marine Bryozoa

Bryozoa, predominantly marine epibionts, are active suspension-feeders consuming phytoplankton, bacteria and dead organic matter in diverse habitats from the intertidal zone to hadal depths exceeding 8000 m. All bryozoans are colonial organisms consisting of modules, so-called zooids, which are usually less than 1 mm long. The pelago-benthic life cycle of Bryozoa includes the formation of gametes in a hermaphrodite colony, sperm release followed by internal fertilization and development of an exotrophic (planktotrophic) or incubated endotrophic (lecithotrophic or matrotrophic) free-swimming larva, which, when competent, finds a place for settlement, attaches to the substratum and undergoes catastrophic metamorphosis. The result is the formation of a founder zooid (ancestrula) that begins to bud the daughter generations of zooids. This scheme is simple, but it is based on the complex phenomena. Also, the diversity of bryozoan reproductive patterns is high. The lecture will deal with this diversity and its evolution, also describing bryozoan life cycles that are still poorly studied.

Upper Cretaceous radiation of cheilostome bryozoans and its ecological background

Bryozoan order Cheilostomata, first appearing in the Upper Jurassic, underwent an explosive radiation in the Upper Cretaceous. The beginning of this radiation coincides with an appearance of the brood chambers – ovicells – in Cheilostomata. The ovicells are the site for the incubation of non-feeding larvae in all Recent forms. In contrast, all non-brooding Bryozoa produces long-living feeding larvae. Thus, it was suggested that evolution of brooding could be an evidence of the evolutionary shift toward the new larval type – short-living lecithotrophic larva - in this group. In turn, such event could trigger the radiation in question by a reduction of a genetic exchange between distant populations and accelerating speciation. Apart of the above hypothesis, the lecture considers the palaeoecological background of the cheilostome radiation suggesting that evolution of non-feeding larva alone could not be responsible for this event. Occupation of free ecological niches as a consequence of the Cenomanian transgressions and exploration of the shelf by non-feeding larvae, changes in oceanic circulation and Mesozoic revolution of predators together with a highest abundance and diversity of phytoplankton are probable ecological factors that favored the bryozoan progressive evolution.

Nous vous attendons nombreux !

Contact
Dr. Katarzyna Tarnowska
Scientific Manager of OT-Med